Menopause– a natural stage in a woman’s life, in which the hormonal function of the ovaries is gradually extinguished, and then the menstrual cycles cease permanently. 

 

 

Menopause is defined by the World Health Organisation as the final cessation of menstruation as a result of the loss of follicular activity of the ovaries, followed by no further bleeding for 12 months.

Menopause is a time of hormonal changes for a woman (associated with a decrease in the level of estrogen and progesterone), which often affect the state of health (physical and mental), as well as the condition of the skin.

 

 

 

Menopause is divided into 3 stages:

 

premenopausal– disorders during regular menstruation;

 

perimenopausal– last menstrual period;

 

postmenopausal– about 12 months after the last menstrual period.

The impact of menopause on physical and mental health:

 

hot flushes;
cold chills;
palpitations, tachycardia of varying degrees of intensity;
memory problems;
dizziness, feeling weak, general feeling of tiredness;
feeling down, depressive states;
irritability, nervousness, mood swings;
insomnia;
vaginal dryness, recurrent infections, stress urinary incontinence;
sudden intense sweating;
weight gain;
osteoporosis;
skin changes;
vaginal atrophy;
increase in LDL cholesterol;
hair loss;
decrease in libido.

The influence of menopause on the skin (inhibition of the synthesis of collagen, cell lipids, glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid):

 

 

acne and seborrhea, enlarged pores;
parchment skin (thinning of the epidermis);
reduction in the concentration of epidermal growth factors;
changes in the structure of blood vessels (occurrence of symptoms of rosacea, capillary breakage, erythema, appearance of ruby spots);
dry, thin, rough skin (decreased level of epidermal lipids – ceramides);
earthy, dull skin color (disorder of the cell renewal process);
skin sensitivity or allergy;
reduction of skin elasticity, deepening and consolidation of wrinkles (elastosis);
loss of firmness, skin flaccidity (elastin degradation);
discoloration- age warts and age spots- lentigo (disturbed work of melanocytes);
impaired functioning of the hydrolipid barrier- hydrolipid coat (decreased production of hyaluronic acid);
tissue atrophy, tissue drooping, oval deformation (collagen loss);
tissue flaccidity (the number and size of fibroblasts decrease);
stretching of the skin and intensification of wrinkles and creases (increased production of enzymes that break down skin proteins- collagenase and elastase);
reduction of subcutaneous tissue;
drooping tip of the nose;
loss of skin density and tone (collagen degradation);
impaired wound healing;
lichen planus;
dark circles and bags under the eyes (worse circulation and skin oxygenation);
the skin copes with oxidative stress worse (weakened protective layer and lower estrogen levels).

Dietoprophylaxis:

 

products containing: antioxidants, vitamins (A, C, D and E), minerals (iron, zinc, calcium, copper, selenium), omega 3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, pantothenic acid, biotin, phytoestrogens.

 

Elimination of sugars, salt, processed, fried and fatty foods, smoking cessation, reduction of caffeine consumption and supplementing menopausal therapy with physical activity.

 

Proper hydration of the body.

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