Protein supplements are dietary supplements used by:

people training (they have anabolic, anti catabolic, nutritional and regenerative effects),

people who want to reduce body fat (because high energy expenditure is needed for protein metabolism)

and sick people (due to the possibility of supplementing even large protein deficiencies).

Protein is one of the three basic nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the body.

The human body does not store proteins or amino acids; every amount of this ingredient is continuously used in all processes in which it takes part.

Reference protein– the reference aminogram contains a full profile of amino acids optimal for the needs of the human body. It allows you to assess the nutritional value of other proteins based on their amino acid composition.

Reference protein for humans is found in chicken eggs, and for infants in mother’s milk.

For people practicing sports, the demand for protein increases, which makes it difficult to supplement it through diet alone. Therefore, protein supplements become helpful as they allow you to maintain the appropriate amount of protein in your diet. The use of protein supplements brings anabolic benefits- expansion of muscle mass, anti catabolic- protection of muscle mass against breakdown and regenerative- improves regeneration time.

Proteins with fast absorption kinetics have an anabolic effect due to the immediate delivery of amino acids; it is best to supplement them before or immediately after training.

Proteins with a slower absorption rate have an anabolic and anti catabolic effect because they gradually release amino acids- they protect the breakdown of muscle mass for a longer time, and amino acids are constantly supplied to the bloodstream, which contributes to the expansion of muscle mass.

The nutritional and anti catabolic effect is due to the longest absorption process due to the gradual release of amino acids. These types of proteins are mainly recommended before bedtime or during the day when regular supply of nutrients is not possible.

BVBiological Value– the proportion of protein absorbed in food and absorbed into body proteins for growth and/ or maintenance- expressed as a percentage of absorbed/ retained nitrogen.

According to scientific research, absorption time:

whey is about 8 to 10 grams per hour;

casein is about 5 grams per hour

and a chicken egg about 1.5 grams per hour.


Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) reaches its maximum level when delivered in a single serving

2025 grams of protein; the body will absorb it in an amount of 1.310 grams per hour.

Research shows that muscle protein synthesis lasts 2448 hours after training

and providing carbohydrates with EAA is the best way to increase muscle protein synthesis.

Leucine is the most important anabolic and anti catabolic amino acid.


Absorption rate determines the rate at which amino acids are delivered into the bloodstream, thereby allowing for anabolic, anti catabolic or nutritional effects.

Types of protein supplements according to their origin:


plant proteins (incomplete proteins, they do not contain all amino acids);

animal proteins (complete proteins due to their amino acid profile).


Moreover, protein supplements differ in their absorption rate.

Characterisation of proteins




Micellar casein– a natural form of casein found in milk, is a very rich source of protein. It has a nutritional and anti catabolic effect – it prevents the breakdown of muscle tissues because it ensures the continuous release of amino acids into the blood. Micellar casein is digested very slowly, approximately 6- 7 hours.


Ovalbuminegg white, this protein isolate is a fat-free source of protein. It is a reference protein due to the highest degree of protein efficiency- it contains a full amino acid profile, high BCAA concentration and high biological value. It has anabolic and anti-catabolic effects. Ovalbumin is a slowly absorbed protein. The protein content in the product is approximately 60- 70%. Does not contain lactose (milk sugar).


Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC)- comes from milk and is produced as a result of ultrafiltration. It has optimal proportions of amino acids and peptides. It has an anabolic and anti catabolic effect and improves the body’s immunity because it increases the level of glutathione (an antioxidant and detoxifier) in the body.

The protein content is 70- 80%, 3- 8% sugars (lactose), 2- 6% fat. It absorbs in about 2- 3 hours. The slowest absorption kinetics- gradual release of amino acids.


Whey Protein Isolate (WPI)- a form of protein created as a result of microfiltration- this process involves separating (isolating) proteins from lactose and other ingredients, e.g. fat and sugar. It is a high purity protein. It has an anabolic effect. The protein content is 80- 95%, 1- 3% fat and 0- 3% lactose. It absorbs in about an hour. Fast absorption kinetics.


Hydrolysed Whey Protein Isolate (WPH)- is produced in the process of enzymatic hydrolysis of peptide chains- breaking peptide bonds between amino acids. It has an anabolic effect. Contains trace amounts of carbohydrates and fats. Protein content up to 100%, fat and lactose are limited or absent. It absorbs in about 15- 60 minutes. The fastest absorption kinetics- immediate delivery of amino acids.


Soy protein isolate (SPI)- proteins of plant origin. The protein has a rich aminogram and a high content of arginine and glutamine. It has anti catabolic properties and supports the reduction of fat tissue. It strengthens immunity, bones and regulates hormonal balance. It is characterized by a very high protein content of 90% and more. It has fast absorption kinetics. Does not contain lactose.


Beef proteins– protein of animal origin. It is an easily digestible protein. They have a very good amino acid profile, which makes them a complete form of protein. It has an anabolic effect. It contains large amounts of leucine, which significantly stimulates the process of muscle protein synthesis. Protein content approximately 90%.

Proteins- protein supplements. Anabolic, anti catabolic, nutritional and regenerative effects. Biological value- biological value. Protein absorption time. Muscle protein synthesis- MPS. Division of protein supplements. Types of protein supplements. Characterisation of proteins. Casein, ovalbumin, whey protein concentrate- (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPH), soy protein isolate (SPI), beef proteins.